Afghanistan Principal Cities – Provinces, Major Cities & Towns

afghanistan major cities

Kabul, the capital and largest city, had an estimated 1,424,400 inhabitants in 1988, but possibly less than 1 million in 1995 because so much of it has been destroyed. The city was once distinguished in Afghanistan for its well-lighted streets and modern buildings, but virtually no electricity exists anymore, and many of Kabul’s structures have … Read more

Currency and Banking 2022 – Economy of Afghanistan

Economy of Afghanistan

The unit of currency in Afghanistan is the afghani, which is divided into 100 puls. Since 1981 the official rate of exchange has been fixed at 50 afghanis equal to U.S.$1. However, the actual market rate of the afghani has fluctuated, and in 1994 2400 afghanis equaled U.S.$1. Dramatic inflation (with rates of up to 57 percent), which … Read more

People of Afghanistan 2022 – Population & Ethnic Groups

Population & Ethnic Groups

Afghanistan is comprised of a variety of ethnic groups called Afghans, the overwhelming majority of whom are Muslim, usually either follower of Sunni or Shia Islam. The people of Afghanistan are related to many of the ethnic groups in Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan; the borders drawn between these groups are arbitrary. For the … Read more

Art and Architecture 2022 – Afghanistan Through the Ages

Afghanistan Art and Architecture

Afghanistan contains striking architectural remnants of all ages, including Greek and Buddhist stupas (shrines or reliquaries) and monasteries, arches, monuments, intricate Islamic minarets (the tall, slender towers on mosques), temples, and forts. Among the most famous sites are the great mosques of Herat and Mazar-e Sharif; the minaret of a mosque at Jam in the … Read more

Brief History of Afghanistan 2022 – Historical Timeline

Afghanistan History

Afghanistan’s history, internal political development, foreign relations, and very existence as an independent state have largely been determined by its geographic location at the crossroads of Central, West, and South Asia. Over the centuries, waves of migrating peoples passed through the region described by historian Arnold Toynbee as a “roundabout of the ancient world”–leaving behind a … Read more

Durand Line 2022 – Afghanistan & Pakistan Border

The Durand Line was demarcated by the British and signed into a treaty in 1893 with the Afghan ruler Amir Abdur Rehman Khan. The treaty was to stay in force for a 100-year period. According to Afrasiab Khattak, a political analyst, the areas from the Khayber Agency Northwards to Chitral, however, remained un-demarcated. This disputed … Read more

Natural Resources 2022 – Afghanistan’s Untapped Minerals

Afghanistan's Untapped Minerals

It is estimated that forty million years ago the tectonic plates of India-Europe, Asia and Africa collided in a massive upheaval. This upheaval created the region of towering mountains that now includes Afghanistan. This diverse geological foundation has resulted in a significant mineral heritage with over 1,400 mineral occurrences recorded to date. Afghanistan’s resources could … Read more

Plant and Animal Life in Afghanistan 2022

Plant and Animal Life

Plant life in Afghanistan is sparse but diverse. Common trees in the mountains are evergreens, oaks, poplars, wild hazelnuts, almonds, and pistachios. The plains of the north are largely dry, treeless steppes and those of the southwestern corner are nearly uninhabitable deserts. Common plants in the arid regions include camel thorn, locoweed, spiny restharrow, mimosa, … Read more